The prevalence of smut diseases in wheat and other cereals triggered some of the earliest studies in plant pathology.
Karnal bunt is a disease of wheat, durum, and triticale caused by the fungal pathogen Tilletia indica Mitra. Karnal bunt was first reported in India in 1931, and later in Pakistan, Mexico, the USA, Iran, and South Africa. The disease has been reported in Nepal and Brazil in isolated areas.
Three rust dieases have been identified on wheat grown in Arizona. However, none of the three diseases have caused significant losses in Arizona
Although Rhizoctonia solani and Pythium spp. have been ocasionally responsible for seedling disease (pre- and post emergence damping-off) in small grains in Arizona, the diseases caused by these fungi are rare and unimportant.
Barley Yellow Dwarf
Wheat Streak Mosaic
The only bacterial disease of small grains in Arizona presently is bacterial streak caused by xanthomonas campertris pv.
In Arizona the most common nonparasitic diseases are:
Frost and cold damage
Water and high temperature stress
Nitrogen and Phosphorus deficiencies