May 5, 2021Summer Sanitation Is Important as Ever
To contact John Palumbo go to: jpalumbo@ag.Arizona.edu
Clovers can be very difficult to control weeds here, but it is also a major crop and common ornamental. Clovers can survive under poor growing conditions and are not controlled with glyphosate and seem to get worse every year. There are more than 50 types and 300 species of clover and they can be easily misidentified. They are all in the legume (Fabracea) family and can use a bacterium (rhizobium) in the soil to convert nitrogen in the atmosphere to a form that they and other plants can use for fertilizer. There are only 4 or 5 clover species that are agricultural pests here. The ones we get the most questions on are white and yellow sweet clover. These are in the Melilotus family. White sweet clover (Melilotus albus) is tall for a clover and can get 3 to 5 foot in height. The leaves are thinner than most clovers and this difficult to control weed lives at least 2 years and sometimes longer. Glyphosate and most of the contact herbicides do not control it. The plant growth regulator herbicides work best. Yellow sweet clover (Melilotus officinalis) is less common here. The flowers are yellow, and it is not as tall and vegetative as white sweet clover. Yellow is more common at higher elevations. California burclover (Medicago polymorpha) and Black medic (Medicago lupina) are in the same genus as alfalfa and are more of a problem in landscapes, parks and golf courses than in agricultural fields here. They do not grow upright and spread below the crop or turf. The true clovers are in the Trifolium genus and include white and strawberry clover. These creep along the ground and root at the nodes of the stem. These are more of a urban landscape weed and not considered an agricultural problem. Creeping woodsorrel or Oxyalis looks like a clover but it is not related. It is a turf weed that spreads rapidly along the ground and can live for several years. Preemergent herbicides are effective against all these clovers before they become established. The postemergence herbicides that are most effective in controlling these clovers are the plant growth regulators. Contact herbicides and glyphosate are generally ineffective.
We have learned a lot about viruses and one of the striking features of most plant viruses is that they always need a host. And the relationship between a virus and its host plant is very specific. So where do the viruses go when we do not have lettuce or melon in the field? And how do they come back at the right time to infect the crops? (clue insect vector). The answer is weeds. A lot of the most economically important viruses are economically important viruses not just because of the losses they cause, but also because of the losses they cause in variety of plants. Viruses have small genome size that allows them to evolve faster. Viruses over time have evolved to adapt and increase their host range.
Below are some common viruses in agriculture and the number of plants they infect/overwinter. Keep in mind that there are many plants that can act as a reservoir for virus but have not been reported yet, so this is not an exclusive list.
Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV): Alfalfa, lettuce, endive, sunflower, datura, amaranth, different species of pigweed, milkweed, annual fleabane, oxeye daisy, hairy galinsoga, smallflower galinsoga, different species of mustards, common lambsquarters, hedge bindweed, field bindweed, cucurbits, different species of clover and vetch, beans, broad beans, lima beans, lupine, pea soybean, ground Ivy, healall, okra, purslane, pimpernel, black nightshade, pepper, tomato, petunia, eggplant, potato, garden pansy etc.
Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV): pigweed, horseweed, oxeye daisy, coffee weed, Canada thistle, bull thistle, hairy galinsoga, Jerusalem artichoke, prickly lettuce, wild chamomile, hawkweed, groundsel, Canada goldenrod, sowthistle, endive, sunflower, lettuce, mustard, radish, chickweed, lambs quarters, morning glory, cucurbits, common teasel, alfalfa, beans, lima beans, mung beans, geranium, ground Ivy, okra, purslane, jimsonweed, ground cherry, horsenettle, black nightshade, pepper, tomato, petunia, eggplant, potato, burning nettle, garden pansy.
Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV): lettuce, bristly oxtongue, spinach.
Bidens mottle potyvirus: lettuce, endive, horseweed, hairy beggarticks, virginia pepperweed, Mexican pricklepoppy.
Celery mosaic virus (CeMV): Celery, giant hogweed
Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV): Bur cucumber, creeping cucumber, balsom pear, cucumber, cantaloupe, watermelon, summer squash, pumpkin, gourd, winter squash, butternut squash,
Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV): Tomato, potato, pigweed, hairy beggarticks, oxeye daisy, coffeeweed, prickly lettuce, annual sowthistle, ebdive, sunflower, lettuce, shepherd’s pruse, chickweed, hedge bindweed, cantaloupe, muskmelon, bean, broad bean, mung bean, cutleaf evening primerose, broadleaf plaintain, purslane, jimsonweed, bittersweet nightshade, black night shade, pepper, tomato, petunia, eggplant, potato.
Tobacco mosaic virus(TMV): White campion, jimsonweed, pepper, tomato, tobacco.
Turnip mosaic virus(TurMV): pigweed, wild carrot, bachelo’s button, Canada thistle, hairy galinsoga, smallflower galinsoga, common catsear, pineapple weed, dandelion, endive, sunflower, lettuce, mustard, brassicae crops, corn cockle, chickweed, common lambsquarter, spinach, cucumber, alsike clover, lupine, redstem filaree, ground Ivy, okra, velvetleaf, common pokeweed, purselane, jimsonweed, black nightshade, tomato, petunia..
Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) : mustard, common lambquarters, spinach, cucumber, watermelon, cantaloupe, squash, buttercup, red clover, common vetch, alfalfa, beans, lupine, pea, henbit, common mallow, okra, common pokeweed, jimsonweed, nightshade,
Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) : cucumber, cantaloupe, watermelon, squash, zucchini, pumpkin, gourds.
Two years ago, Alphabet’s (Google) X-Labs initiated one of their infamous and far reaching “moonshot” projects focused on growing food sustainably on global scale. As you might expect, the project has been, and is kept pretty secret, but the company recently unveiled some details about the project through a company blog article (Grant, 2020) and their newly established website (https://x.company/projects/mineral/). The project is called “Mineral” and according to project lead Elliot Grant, the team has been working “alongside experts in the field – literally and figuratively…developing and testing a range of software and hardware prototypes based on breakthroughs in artificial intelligence, simulation, sensors, robotics and more”.
One of the tools the team has developed is a self-propelled “plant buggy” equipped with multiple cameras, sensors, GPS and other electronic equipment (Fig. 1). According to Mineral’s website, “Over the past few years, the plant buggy has trundled through strawberry fields in California and soybean fields in Illinois, gathering high quality images of each plant and counting and classifying every berry and every bean. To date, the team has analyzed a range of crops like melons, berries, lettuce, oilseeds, oats and barley—from sprout to harvest.” Stated objectives of Mineral’s software are to combine and analyze data collected from the field, soil health information and weather data to 1) predict how different varieties of plants respond to their environments, 2) allow growers to treat individual plants with fertilizers and pesticides to optimize production and reduce inputs and 3) help growers predict the size and yield of their crops.
It is exciting that a cutting-edge tech company like Alphabet is taking on an agricultural project like this. It will be fascinating to see what technical breakthroughs and solutions the company will be able to achieve for all crops, including vegetables.
Grant, E. 2020. Mineral: Bringing the era of computational agriculture to life. X Development LLC blog article. Mountain View, CA: X Development LLC. Available at https://blog.x.company/mineral-bringing-the-era-of-computational-agriculture-to-life-427bca6bd56a.
The Yuma County Leaf Wetness Network remains in place for the 2018/19 vegetable season. Growers and PCAs may access information generated by the network by entering the following internet address: http://18.104.22.168:460
Upon entering the address above, you will be transferred to internet page that provides a series of tabs at the top of the page. Simply click on the tabs to access the information of interest.
Results of pheromone and sticky trap catches can be viewed HERE.
Results of pheromone and sticky trap catches can be viewed HERE.
Corn earworm: CEW moth activity increased a bit in the past 2 weeks but remains well below average for late spring.
Beet armyworm: Moth counts increased slightly, but remain very low consistent with seasonal temperatures, and below average for this point in the season.
Cabbage looper: Significant increase in activity in Dome Valley, Gila Valley and Tacna, but moth counts remain unusually low for this time of year, as they have all season.
Whitefly: No adult movement recorded across all locations and overall low numbers consistent with temperatures.
Thrips: Thrips adult movement beginning to pick up considerably, particularly in Yuma and Dome Valleys. Movement is below average for late March.
Aphids: Seasonal aphid counts down considerably compared with the Feb and Jan. Counts highest in Bard and Gila Valley. Below average movement for this time of year. Majority of species found on traps were green peach aphid.
Leafminers: Adult activity up slightly in some locations, but well below average for late season.