Jan 24, 2024Avoid Seed Corn Maggots in Spring Melons (2024)To contact John Palumbo go to: jpalumbo@ag.Arizona.edu
As the lettuce plants start to grow and get bigger in the field, you might start seeing the symptoms of bacterial soft rot. Though it rarely takes down the whole field, the symptom are not so pleasant. Bacterial soft rot in lettuce can occur in the field as well as post harvest.
It is caused by several types of bacteria, but primarily subspecies and pathovars of Erwinia caro-tovora and E. chrysanthemi. Other bacterial species that cause soft rot include Pseudomonas cichorii, P. marginalis, and P. viridiflava. They have a wide host range host range and includes genera from nearly all plant families
In lettuce fields, the symptoms are observed close to the harvest time. The tissue, mostly around inside the head of head lettuce softens and becomes mushy or watery. Slimy masses of bacteria and cellular debris frequently ooze out from cracks in the tissues. Decaying tissue, which may be opaque, white, cream-colored, gray, brown, or black frequently gives off a characteristically putrid odor. The odor is caused by secondary invading bacteria that are growing in the decomposing tissues.
The bacteria overwinter in infected fleshy tissues in storage, in the field, garden or greenhouse, in the soil (especially in the rhizosphere around the roots of many plants), and on contaminated tools, equipment, containers, and in certain insects. The bacteria enter primarily through wounds made during planting, cultivating, harvesting, grading, and packing and through freezing injuries, insect and hail wounds, growth cracks, and sunscald. They may also follow other disease-producing organisms. Uninjured tissues may become infected when the humidity approaches 100 percent or when free moisture is present. Rains, poorly drained or waterlogged soils, and warm temperatures favor infection in the field, as does high humidity in storage or transit.
The bacteria multiply rapidly by dividing in half every 20 to 60 minutes under ideal conditions at temperatures between 65° and 95° (18° and 35°C). Minimum temperatures for development is between 35° and 46°F (2° and 6°C); and maximum between 95° and 105°F (35° and 41°C.
The bacteria are spread by direct contact, hands, tools and farm machinery, insects, running or splashing water, contaminated, water in washing vats, clothing, and decayed bits of tissue.
Promptly and carefully destroy infected plants. Maintain well aerated field, avoid close planting and overhead irrigation.
To minimize post harvest losses, avoid mechanical injusry after harvest, packing and shipping. Do not pack produce when wet. Store and ship produce at temperatures near 4°C (39°F).
Due a lack of effective post-emergence herbicides, most vegetable crops are hand weeded following cultivation to remove in-row weeds. This operation is costly and finding labor to perform the task has become increasingly difficult. Precision micro-sprayers for delivering herbicides have been developed, but lack sufficient speed, accuracy and off-target spray control to be commercially viable. To address this, a high speed, centimeter scale resolution sprayer that can spot apply herbicides to weeds with minimal off-target spray while traveling speeds that are viable for commercial farming operations was developed. The objective of this research was to evaluate the performance of the device in terms of spray delivery accuracy, off-target spray quantity, weed control efficacy and crop safety. The spray assembly comprised 12 custom-built spray modules spaced 1 cm apart. The device was tested with lettuce in the laboratory at a travel speed on 2.0 mph while targeting three weed species at three stages of growth. Results showed that targeting accuracy of spray delivered was ± 2 mm and that the percentage of off-target spray was less than 3%. Weed control efficacy exceeded 95% and there was no observable crop injury. Improvements to the original design were identified and the enhanced sprayer was found to provide sub-centimeter precision. Practical applications of the technologies developed include precision spot spraying of weeds in lettuce, carrot, onion, spring mix and other vegetable crops. A remaining technical challenge for the realization of an automated precision weeding machine is the development of a camera imaging system capable of reliable crop/weed differentiation. Field testing of the precision spot sprayers is also needed.
Click the following link to watch presentation on Centimeter Scale Resolution Spot Sprayer.
The Yuma IPM Team has received requests for herbicide efficacy data generated locally for Onion and Broccoli.
We are currently doing some evaluations for direct seeded broccoli. Some of the treatments suggested by PCAs and growers are Devrinol DF XT at the rate of 1.0 and 2.0 lb, also Devrinol 2-XT at the rate of 1.0 and 2.0 qt. Additional preemergence herbicides included in the trials are Prefar 6 qt, Trifluralin 1.5 pt. Other treatments included are Goal Tender and Prowl with a directed application at 3-5 leaves. In a separate broccoli test we are looking at different incorporation timings of Devrinol due to some stunting issues reported. Our trial includes 12, 24, 36 hour sprinkler irrigation incorporation times for the liquid and dry formulations. Phytotoxicity will be evaluated and reported to you in this newsletter and University of Arizona Workshops.
For onions we established trials including treatments suggested such as Ethotron SC at 32 fl oz to a fine soil. Also included Prefar, Dual Magnum and Treflan preemergence. We will compare with Outlook plus Prowl and Goal Tender at 3 leaf stage.
Additionally, Corteva Agriscience is also focused in providing some options for weed control in both broccoli and onions. Some of their products been evaluated at the Agricultural Center are Rinskor (Hulk) and Enversa at post and preemergence.
We thank you for your treatment suggestions, which are incredibly helpful for designing the experiments we are conducting. We are looking forward to sharing the results with you.