Jun 15, 2022Whiteflies Building Up, Adults on the MoveTo contact John Palumbo go to: jpalumbo@ag.Arizona.edu
Arizona agriculture utilizes ~ 70% of the water in this state and generates a strong and productive industry. Arizona agriculture generates more than $23B in sales as well as directly and indirectly supporting more than 138,000 Arizona jobs and employing more than 162,000 unique workers. Arizona ranks among leading states in the production of lettuce, spinach, broccoli, cauliflower, cantaloupe, honeydew melons, durum wheat, and other commodities. Arizona is an important area for the seed production of many crops that are used across the U.S. and worldwide. Many Arizona counties rank in the top 1% of all U.S. counties in terms of crop and livestock production (Murphree, 2018).
In response to the Colorado River (CR) water shortage and the current reductions in CR allocations to Arizona via the Central Arizona Project (CAP), which is primarily impacting agricultural irrigation districts in central Arizona, there is an increasing level of scrutiny on agricultural uses of Arizona water. This of course is accentuated with the recognition that agriculture utilizes ~ 70% of the Arizona water supply.
In the irrigation districts along the mainstem of the CR, there is a common adage of “First in use, first in right.” This is a fundamental aspect of the “law of the river”, which is an amalgam of the various laws, agreements, and rulings on the governance of CR water. Therefore, it is important for us to consider and prepare the positive case that can be made for the good stewardship of water resources provided by Arizona agriculture.
One common area of criticism that is directed towards Arizona crop production systems, is the use of surface and flood irrigation systems. The alternative irrigation methods that are commonly advocated for use instead of flood irrigation are methods such as drip irrigation, micro-irrigation systems, sprinklers, etc. Each of these are good irrigation methods and advantageous under the appropriate conditions. However, a good case can be made for the very efficient use of flood irrigation systems, particularly with high-flow turnouts and dead level (or very nearly so) basins for irrigation. When properly managed, these types of flood irrigation systems can be very efficient.
When we know the area to be irrigated, the flow rate of water in the irrigation delivery ditch, and the amount of water needed; then we can determine the proper time or duration for an irrigation event. If we can get fast and uniform coverage of the field to be irrigated, apply the proper volume of water to replenish the plant-available water supply to the soil, then cut off the flow of irrigation water into the field; we can do a very good job of delivery for high water-use efficiency.
To facilitate the process of managing individual irrigations for optimum efficiency, the Irrigator’s Equation can be used to estimate the depth of water applied or time (duration) of an irrigation event.
Q x t = d x A
Where: Q = the flow rate, in cubic feet per second (cfs);
t = the set time or total time of irrigation (hours);
d = the depth of water applied (inches) and
A = the area irrigated (acres).
With an understanding of the dominant soil type in the field being irrigated and the level of soil-water depletion at the time of irrigation, we can estimate the amount or depth of water needed to replenish the soil profile of plant-available water to support the crop and prevent water stress.
In managing crop fields and irrigations, we recognize that soil textures vary in terms of water holding capacities and it is important to understand the dominant soil textures in the field, not only on the surface but also through the depths of the soil profile through the effective rooting depth of the crop, Tables 1 & 2.
Collectively, we can manage surface or flood irrigation systems efficiently. In the crop production arena, it is important to communicate these points effectively.
Table 1. Soil texture and water holding capacity.
2. Depths to which the roots of mature crops will deplete the available water supply when grown in a deep permeable, well-drained soil under average conditions.
Source: Chapter 11, "Sprinkler Irrigation," Section 15, Natural Resources Conservation Service National Engineering Handbook
Murphree, J. 2018. Arizona Agriculture is 23 Billion Dollars Beautiful, Arizona Farm Bureau.
Bindu Poudel, Martin Porchas Sr., and Rebecca Ramirez
Yuma Agricultural Center, University of Arizona, Yuma, AZ
This study was conducted at the Yuma Valley Agricultural Center. The soil was a silty clay loam (7-56-37 sand-silt-clay, pH 7.2, O.M. 0.7%). Melon variety: Deluxe (HMX2595)was seeded, then sprinkler-irrigated to germinate seed on March 31, 2020 on 84 inches between bed centers. All other water was supplied by furrow irrigation or rainfall. Treatments were replicated five times in a randomized complete block design. Each replicate plot consisted of 25 ft of bed. Treatment beds were separated by single nontreated beds. Treatments were applied with a tractor-mounted boom sprayer that delivered 50 gal/acre at 100 psi to flat-fan nozzles spaced 12 in apart.
Spray treatments were done on 5-21-2020, 5-28-2020, 6-4-2020, 6-11-2020.
Disease severity of powdery mildew (caused by Sphaerotheca fuliginea and S. fusca) severity was determined 6-19-2020 an d 6-19-22 by rating 10 plants within each of the four replicate plots per treatment using the following rating system: 0 = no powdery mildew present; 1 = one to two mildew colonies on leaves ;2 = powdery mildew present on one quarter of leaves; 3 = powdery mildew present on half of the leaves; 4 = powdery mildew present on more than half of leaf surface area ; 5 = powdery mildew present on entire leaf. These ratings were transformed to percentage of leaves infected values before being statistically analyzed.
The data in the table illustrate the degree of disease control obtained by application of the various treatments in this trial. Most treatments significantly reduced the final severity of powdery mildew compared to nontreated plants. The most effective fungicides included Luna Sensation, Torino SC, Quintec/Torino/Quintec/Torino in rotation, Mettle/Quintec/Torino/Quintec in rotation. Phytotoxicity symptoms were not noted for any treatments in this trial.
Vol. 13, Issue 4, Published 2/23/2022
Keeping up to date with the latest developments in automated weeding machines is challenging. It’s a very fast-moving space with significant private and public investment. At the 2022 Southwest Ag Summit “Innovations in Weed Control Technologies” breakout session, university experts and cutting-edge innovators will provide updates on the latest domestic and international developments in automated weeding, autonomous ag robots, and non-chemical weed control (agenda below). The session will be held TOMMOROW Thursday, February 24th from 1:30-3:30 pm.
As I mentioned in the last newsletter, we’ll also be demoing our band-steam applicator for controlling soilborne diseases and weeds at the Southwest Ag Summit Field Day. We’ll also have our 2nd generation prototype band-steam applicator on display (Fig. 2). It is simpler in design and has a higher capacity steam generator as compared to our first prototype. This will increase travel speed and thereby work rate. The event is scheduled for TODAY, Wednesday, February 23rd from 10:30 am – 4:30 pm.
For more information about the Southwest Ag Summit, visit https://yumafreshveg.com/southwest-ag-summit/.
Hope to see you there!
This work is partially funded by the Arizona Iceberg Lettuce Research Council, Arizona Specialty Crop Block Grant Program and USDA-NIFA Crop Protection and Pest Management Program.
Fig. 1. “Innovations in Weed Control Technologies” breakout session agenda at the 2022 Southwest Ag Summit. Session will be held Thursday, February 24th at Arizona Western College, Yuma, AZ.
Fig. 2. Prototype band-steam applicator for controlling soilborne pathogens and weeds on display at the 2022 Southwest Ag Summit, Yuma, AZ. Applicator sled and trailer fabricated by Keithly-Williams Fabrication, Yuma, AZ. Steam generator provided courtesy of Simox, Contamine-sur-Arve, France.
Palafoxia arida is a plant from the family Asteraceae also called the Sunflower family. It is native to the Desert regions of California and the SW United States in AZ, NV, CA, UT, Baja California and Sonora. It is an annual weed that grows erect and has rough hairs on the leaves, which are grayish green and narrow or linear. This plant can grow up to 6 ft has a main tap root. The flower heads are about 2-3 cm long with several (up to 40) tubular five lobed florets white to light pink color. Its habitat includes sandy plains, mesas, washes, dunes.
We found this weed abundantly in our Yuma County Survey. The highest populations were found at the Yuma Mesa around fields. Also found in newly established alfalfa fields. Despite the fact that it prefers sandy soils we also detected Palafoxia all across the Yuma County from the Texas Hill area Wellton, Dome Valley to the San Luis Arizona border. Please see Yuma County map below.
The Arizona Vegetable IPM Team will be checking to see if this weed is a possible host for INSV (Inpatiens Necrotic Spot Virus).