This bulletin deals with the physiology of cotton defoliation and attempts to describe what conditions must exist inside the plant in order for defoliation to occur. It is important to understand the basic physiological processes involved in order for best crop management practices to accomplish a successful defoliation.
Training and pruning newly-planted deciduous fruit trees is one of the most important steps in developing trees with a strong framework (scaffold branches). Trees with a good framework of branches can support heavy crops without limb breakage and will help to bring the young tree into production at an early age. Selection and arrangement of these branches determines the type of development and growth in later years. The goal of pruning and training is to balance vegetative and fruiting wood growth.
Three maturity groupings are often used to classify cotton varieties, consisting of: 1) short season or more determinate plants, 2) medium season varieties, and 3) long or full season varieties which are more indeterminate in nature. Classification of cotton varieties into one of these three categories is not necessarily straightforward in all cases. In fact, it easily can become a process of “splitting hairs” when making maturity grouping designations for cotton varieties. Nevertheless, maturity designations are commonly assigned to most commercially available varieties, which can effect selection and management.
Soil Management and Soil Testing for Irrigated Cotton Production
Whenever studying cotton, it is a natural tendency to focus on the above ground portions of the plant. However, an equally important part of the plant is the root system, The soil is a focal point of any farming operation.
The approaches and techniques used to produce a cotton crop in Arizona can vary to some degree from county to county, or from farm to farm. However, one of the objectives that has become increasingly common across Arizona is that of achieving earliness with a crop.
Predicting and Mitigating Resistance Development in Whiteflies
Authors: Naomi Pier, Lydia Brown, Peter Ellsworth, John Palumbo, Yves Carriere, Al Fournier (University of Arizona); Steve Castle (USDA), Nilima Prabhaker (UC-R)
Insecticidal resistance in whiteflies is a real problem, threatening economic and effective pest control. Research is being done on whitefly resistances to currently used chemical controls and the potential of usage patterns to contribute to the development of these resistances. Effective resistance mitigation begins with the application of the first principles of resistance management.
Estimating the Vegetative/Reproductive Balance in Cotton Growth
A healthy, well-developed cotton plant that is capable of high yield requires a strong root system, mainstem structure, sufficient leaves, and numerous fruiting branches to support a good boll load. Too small a vegetative structure on the plant results in reduced yield potential, and too much vegetative development, which is usually done at the expense of fruit set and yield.
Authors: Shujuan (Lucy) Li, Dawn Gouge, Shaku Nair, Al Fournier
In 25 states head lice have become highly resistant to the most commonly used lice shampoo treatments, including pyrethrins and the pyrethroid insecticide permethrin. In fact, most states (104 out of 109 samples) tested so far have lice that are resistant to these over-the-counter lice treatment options.
Soil Fertility and Soil Testing Guideline for Arizona Cotton
According to all available evidence, there are 20 total nutrients necessary for complete plant growth and development. Not all are required for all plants, but all have been found to be essential to some.
Preparing Your School Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Plan
Featuring Pests on Landscape Plants. Diversity in landscapes and plants can provide ideal food and living conditions for pests. Diagnosis of insects on plants is discussed. These can be diagnosed through means of identifying the damage done.
EPA’s Proposal to Mitigate Exposure to Bees from Acutely Toxic Pesticide Products
This document discusses the EPA's proposed mandatory pesticide label restrictions to protect managed bees. The proposed requirements would not supersede existing, more restrictive product use specifications.
Impact of Bagrada Bug Infestations on Fall Cole Crops, 2010-2014
The bagrada bug became a major pest of cole crops since 2010. This report consists of information gathered through surveys over four years and shows what some of the trends are regarding the bagrada bug over that time period.
Wheat and barley use about 2 ft of water in Arizona, but 3 to 3.5 ft of applied water is often required with surface flood irrigation due inefficiencies in the irrigation system. Some suggestion on how to irrigate your small grains are made, including when and how much.
Wheat and barley are the two major small grain crops in Arizona. These crops can produce yields near maximum at a wide range of seeding rates due to yield component compensation. This article talks about some considerations to make when planting your crop.
Planting at the optimum time is probably the most important cultural practice in producing high small grain yields. Wheat and barley crops that are planted too early or too late have lower yield potential no matter how they are grown after planting. Some suggestions on planting dates are outlined in this article.
Sudangrass Hay Production in the Irrigated Deserts of Arizona and California
Since 1989, high demand for fine-stemmed sudangrass hay by Pacific Rim countries has created a market opportunity for Arizona and hay producers. This article discusses types of sudangrass, it's production, and pest management.
Small grain growth and development can be divided into several major and minor stages. This article discusses those stages and what to look as the crop develops. A chart also details the timing of management operations during crop development.
New Pest In Community Environments – Ficus Whitefly – May 2015