Nitrogen is the primary fertilizer nutrient required by wheat and barley. This article describes the optimum nitrogen fertilizer rate, nitrogen fertilizer scheduling, and how to boost grain protein content.
Wheat and barley use about 2 ft of water in Arizona, but 3 to 3.5 ft of applied water is often required with surface flood irrigation due inefficiencies in the irrigation system. Some suggestion on how to irrigate your small grains are made, including when and how much.
Small grain growth and development can be divided into several major and minor stages. This article discusses those stages and what to look as the crop develops. A chart also details the timing of management operations during crop development.
Planting at the optimum time is probably the most important cultural practice in producing high small grain yields. Wheat and barley crops that are planted too early or too late have lower yield potential no matter how they are grown after planting. Some suggestions on planting dates are outlined in this article.
Small grains are planted for a variety of reasons, but their rotational benefit makes them a popular crop all over the world and influences the way they are planted. One of the major benefits of small grains as rotational crops is that they cover the soil and suppress weeds
Karnal bunt is a disease of wheat, durum, and triticale caused by the fungal pathogen Tilletia indica Mitra. Karnal bunt was first reported in India in 1931. This article discusses it's cycle, symptoms, and suggestions on how to control it.
Small Grains Variety Evaluation at Arizona City, Maricopa and Yuma
Small grain varieties are evaluated each year by University of Arizona personnel. The purpose of these tests is to characterize varieties in terms of yield and other attributes. This article describes the procedure.
Research Report Effect of Planting Date on Wheat Yield in Yuma
Planting dates are known to affect wheat yields. Previous research has shown that the optimum planting date in Yuma is December 15 to January 15. This research paper tested six different planting dates with a wide range of varieties of wheat.
Determination of optimal planting configuration of low input and organic barley and wheat production in Arizona
Markets for organic barley and wheat are expanding. A major problem growing organic barley and wheat is controlling the weeds. This paper outlines a study of growing organic barley documenting the weed pressures.
Sensor-based management of Nitrogen of irrigated durum wheat in Arizona
Authors: Pedro Andrade-Sanchez and Michael J. Ottman
It can be difficult to accurately apply the proper amount of nutrients to wheat due to their varying sizes and densities. Current field equipment can already vary the rate of fertilizer dispersal, but it needs to be controlled by an algorithm. An algorithm is being developed for that purpose.
Recommendations for Growing Standard-Height Wheat Varieties in Arizona
Until the introduction of semi-dwarf wheat in the late 1960s, wheat varieties were typically one and a half to two times their current height. Most "standard height" wheat varieties are adapted to lower-input conditions, and cannot tolerate high-fertility environments without lodging. Planting date, seeding rate, nitrogen rate, phosphorus rate, and irrigation are discussed in this article.
Operation of Yield Monitors in Central Arizona: Grains and Cotton
Yield maps can be an important management tool to quantify the impact of management practices including water, fertility, pest control, variety selection, etc. Yield monitoring technology provides farm managers with information to improve input utilization, therefore many guidelines for their use are available online, including university cooperative extension bulletins for grain crops, and cotton.
An Introduction to the Use of Reference Strips for N Management in Durum Wheat
A proper application of nitrogen fertilizer can be somewhat difficult for Arizona growers due to a varying amount of nitrogen needed from year to year. This article explains the use of reference strips for assessing the proper amount of nitrogen fertilizer needed that year.
This document has a quick breakdown of some of the most important factors to consider when irrigating small grains. Topics such as seasonal water use, the first irrigation, last irrigation, and soil water balance methods.
Determining the Amount of Irrigation Water Applied to a Field
Critical to any irrigation management approach is an accurate estimate of the amount of water applied to a field. Estimating the amount of water applied to a field or to a set is fairly easy for surface systems.
Authors: Guangyao (Sam) Wang, Shawna Loper, Mike Ottman, and James Walworth
Pre-plant soil sampling is critical for profitable crop production. Soil analysis can help decide pre-plant fertilizer application. Generally only nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer applications are ever needed in Arizona.
Wheat and barley crops are susceptible to lodging, the bending over of the stems near the ground level. Suggestions on how to control this are outlined in this article. Herbicides, fungicides, and cultural/environmental factors.
Minimum tillage for wheat following winter vegetables
Authors: Kurt Nolte, Mike Ottman, Trent Teegerstrom and Guangyao (Sam) Wang
Wheat is typically grown after cotton or other field crops in most of Arizona except for Yuma County where wheat is planted after winter vegetables. This article describes the benefits of utilizing the minimum tillage threshold when planting wheat after other crops.
Weed Control for Wheat and Barley in the Low Deserts of Arizona
Although wheat and barley are vigorous crops that rapidly cover the soil surface and often out-compete weeds, weeds can still become a problem with certain cultural practices. This article gives some suggestions on the usage of herbicides when they become necessary.
Solum barley was released in 1992 for grain or forage production under reduced water use conditions. Solum barley was developed over the course of 18 years with low input and reduced water usage in mind. This article describes some of its history, uses, planting dates, seeding rates, and characteristics.
Diseases and Nutritional Disorders of Wheat, Barley, and Oats
Authors: Richard Hine, Mike Ottman, and Thomas Doerge
The cultivation of wheat, barley, and oats has been around for a long time. There have been many different types of diseases that can attack these crops. This article talks about the diseases that are important to Arizona growers and discusses their symptoms.
Oat production has decreased significantly in the United States over the course of the last century. It is still grown as a relatively minor crop in Arizonan agriculture. This article outlines some different varieties and cultural practices in regards to oat production.
Winter Grass Pasture For Low Desert Valleys In Arizona
Crops that can be used for winter grass pasture are barley, oats, wheat and common or tetraploid ryegrasss. Suggestions on planting time, seeding rate, fertilizing, irrigating, harvest and management are discussed.