May 5, 2021Summer Sanitation Is Important as Ever
To contact John Palumbo go to: jpalumbo@ag.Arizona.edu
Malva (malva parviflora) is one of the oldest and most pervasive weeds that that we deal with here. It is also known as little mallow or cheeseweed and is in the same family as cotton, okra and hibiscus. It is often classified as a winter annual but survives all year in this region. It has a deep taproot and can grow in compacted clay or sand and in freezing conditions and high temperatures It provides a refuge for insects and diseases that can damage several crops.
Malva is easy to identify both as a seedling and mature plant. The seedlings are distinctively heart shaped and the mature plant is broad and palm shaped. It is very vegetative and can grow to 6 ft.
The deep tap root of this weed makes it difficult to cut out after it is established. Its response to herbicides id somewhat unusual. It is very sensitive to contact herbicides that do not move into the plant. These include Goal, Sharpen Gramoxone , Rely,Aim and others. However, it is not sensitive to systemic herbicides like 2,4-D and Glyphosate. It reproduces from seed and can be controlled preemergence with many of the same preemergence herbicides used in cotton like Prowl or Treflan. The seed pods are wheel shaped which is where the name cheeseweed comes from. Each seed pod contains 10 to 12 seeds
With harvesting time getting closer to many field crops now, we are seeing higher incidence of bacterial diseases. We had few reports of bacterial spot on lettuce, cilantro, arugula, and parsley. Most times bacterial symptoms are not expected or simply ignored because we think the desert is too dry and bacterial diseases require high humidity. But as the plants grow bigger the space and aeration in between plants decreases, thus creating a humid microclimate. It is even more common on produces/herbs like cilantro, arugula, parsley etc. where the crops are grown densely, and sprinkle irrigation is used.
Initial symptoms of bacterial leaf spot are water-soaked lesions on leaves. The lesions develop into spots that are varying shades of tan or brown (see picture ‘B’ on parsley whereas advanced spots on cilantro can be black (see picture ‘A’ on cilantro). The lesions are usually limited by leaf veins and thus have an angular, square, or rectangular appearance, a typical feature of bacterial infection. Lesions tend to be relatively small about 1/8 to 1/4 inch (3–6 mm) in diameter and are visible from both the top and bottom of leaves. Under favorable conditions, free moisture from rain or sprinkler irrigation, leaf spots may coalesce and cause considerable blighting of the entire foliage.
Pseudomonas syringae pv. apii (Psa) and P. syringae pv. coriandricola (Psc). cause bacterial leaf spot on most vegetable. Pseudomonas syringae pv. apii (Psa) can cause leaf blight in celery and fennel as well. Though the problem is documented as more of a problem in cilantro and less in celery, in severe condition the disease can result in unmarketable produce in any host. The bacteria can be seedborne. However, water from rain, sprinkler irrigation, and heavy dews and fogs will splash bacteria from infected plants onto adjacent healthy foliage resulting in heavy infestation.
To manage the disease, always use tested/treated seeds, rotate crop with non-host to reduce inoculum level, switch from sprinkler to furrow irrigation to limit secondary spread, avoid excessive use of nitrogen fertilizer. If sprinkle irrigation has to be used, use light and more frequent irrigation, or irrigate in the morning or early afternoon so the plants dry off during the day. Copper spray/copper based fungicide provide limited control against the pathogens.
In next few weeks in the Clinic:
Because of the recent increase of Covid-19 related cases in Yuma, the Yuma Ag center is open only in limited capacity. Samples have to be dropped in the bench outside the main building. Please fill out the form provided when you drop samples. Our last day to take samples in the clinic for 2020 will be 18th of December. We will be using the remaining few days of the year to update the lab records, data, and prepare for 2021. Thank you for your love, support, and patience this year.
The Yuma Plant Health Clinic and Plant Pathology program wishes you safe and happy holidays!
In previous articles (Vol. 11 (13), Vol. 11 (20), Vol. 11(24)), I’ve discussed using band-steam to control plant diseases and weeds. Band-steaming is where steam is used to heat narrow strips of soil to temperature levels sufficient to kill soilborne pathogens and weed seed (>140 °F for > 20 minutes). The concept is showing good promise. This past season, three trials were conducted examining the efficacy of using steam for disease and weed control in Yuma, AZ. In the studies, steam was applied in a 4-inch-wide by 2-inch-deep band of soil centered on the seedline using a prototype band-steam applicator (Fig.1). The band-steam applicator is principally comprised of a 35 BHP steam generator mounted on top of an elongated bed shaper. The apparatus applies steam via shank injection and from cone shaped ports on top of the bed shaper.
Trial results were very encouraging as the prototype applicator was able to raise soil temperatures to target levels (140°F for >20 minutes) at viable travels speeds of 0.75 mph. Steam provided better than 80% weed control and significantly lowered hand weeding time by more than 2 hours per acre (Table 1). Results also showed that Fusarium colony forming units (CFU) were reduced from 2,600 in the control to 155 in the 0.75 mph and 53 in the 0.5 mph treatments, respectively (a more than 15-fold reduction). A significant difference in Fusarium wilt of lettuce disease incidence was not found, however disease infection at the field site was low (< 2%) and differences were not expected. At 0.5 mph, fuel costs were calculated to be $238/acre which was considered reasonable and consistent with the values reported by Fennimore et al. (2014).
An unexpected finding was that plants in steam treated plots appeared to be healthier and more vigorous than untreated plots (Fig. 2). This trial is still in progress and it will be interesting to see if this improved early growth translates into increases in crop yield.
In summary, early trial results are showing good promise for use of band-steam as a non-herbicidal method of pest control. We plan on conducting further trials in this multi-year study. If you are interested in evaluating the device on your farm and being part of the study please contact me. We are particularly interested in fields with a known history of Fusarium wilt of lettuce and/or Sclerotinia lettuce drop that will be planted to iceberg or romaine lettuce.
As always, if you are interested in seeing the machine operate or would like more information, please feel free to contact me.
This work is supported by Crop Protection and Pest Management grant no. 2017-70006-27273/project accession no. 1014065 from the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture, the Arizona Specialty Crop Block Grant Program and the Arizona Iceberg Lettuce Research Council. We greatly appreciate their support. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the U.S. Department of Agriculture.
A special thank you is extended to Mellon Farms for allowing us to conduct this research on their farm.
Fennimore, S.A., Martin, F.N., Miller, T.C., Broome, J.C., Dorn, N. and Greene, I. 2014. Evaluation of a mobile steam applicator for soil disinfestation in California strawberry. HortScience 49(12):1542-1549.
Click link below or picture to see the band-steam and co-product applicator in action!
Area wide Insect Trapping Network VegIPM Update, Vol. 11, No. 22, October 28, 2020
Results of pheromone and sticky trap catches can be viewed here.
Corn earworm: Moth activity is about average for mid-October, particularly in Dome Valley and south Yuma Valley.
Beet armyworm: Moths remain active throughout the desert, especially active in Tacna and Dome Valley.
Cabbage looper: Cabbage looper activity remains unusually low for early October, likely a result of unusually hot weather. Larvae are yet to show up in many fields.
Whitefly: Adult movement has been about average for this time of year. Activity highest in Tacna near fall melons.
Thrips: To date, thrips activity has been seasonably low at all trap locations; activity increased significantly in Roll.
Aphids: Aphids beginning to show in most traps along the Colorado River (Bard, Gila, Yuma) which is normal for this time of year. Recent high winds may begin to disperse them throughout the area.
Leafminers: Adult activity below normal for September, but high numbers caught in Wellton in areas where melon harvest has commenced.