May 5, 2021Summer Sanitation Is Important as Ever
To contact John Palumbo go to: jpalumbo@ag.Arizona.edu
Malva (malva parviflora) is one of the oldest and most pervasive weeds that that we deal with here. It is also known as little mallow or cheeseweed and is in the same family as cotton, okra and hibiscus. It is often classified as a winter annual but survives all year in this region. It has a deep taproot and can grow in compacted clay or sand and in freezing conditions and high temperatures It provides a refuge for insects and diseases that can damage several crops.
Malva is easy to identify both as a seedling and mature plant. The seedlings are distinctively heart shaped and the mature plant is broad and palm shaped. It is very vegetative and can grow to 6 ft.
The deep tap root of this weed makes it difficult to cut out after it is established. Its response to herbicides id somewhat unusual. It is very sensitive to contact herbicides that do not move into the plant. These include Goal, Sharpen Gramoxone , Rely,Aim and others. However, it is not sensitive to systemic herbicides like 2,4-D and Glyphosate. It reproduces from seed and can be controlled preemergence with many of the same preemergence herbicides used in cotton like Prowl or Treflan. The seed pods are wheel shaped which is where the name cheeseweed comes from. Each seed pod contains 10 to 12 seeds
With harvesting time getting closer to many field crops now, we are seeing higher incidence of bacterial diseases. We had few reports of bacterial spot on lettuce, cilantro, arugula, and parsley. Most times bacterial symptoms are not expected or simply ignored because we think the desert is too dry and bacterial diseases require high humidity. But as the plants grow bigger the space and aeration in between plants decreases, thus creating a humid microclimate. It is even more common on produces/herbs like cilantro, arugula, parsley etc. where the crops are grown densely, and sprinkle irrigation is used.
Initial symptoms of bacterial leaf spot are water-soaked lesions on leaves. The lesions develop into spots that are varying shades of tan or brown (see picture ‘B’ on parsley whereas advanced spots on cilantro can be black (see picture ‘A’ on cilantro). The lesions are usually limited by leaf veins and thus have an angular, square, or rectangular appearance, a typical feature of bacterial infection. Lesions tend to be relatively small about 1/8 to 1/4 inch (3–6 mm) in diameter and are visible from both the top and bottom of leaves. Under favorable conditions, free moisture from rain or sprinkler irrigation, leaf spots may coalesce and cause considerable blighting of the entire foliage.
Pseudomonas syringae pv. apii (Psa) and P. syringae pv. coriandricola (Psc). cause bacterial leaf spot on most vegetable. Pseudomonas syringae pv. apii (Psa) can cause leaf blight in celery and fennel as well. Though the problem is documented as more of a problem in cilantro and less in celery, in severe condition the disease can result in unmarketable produce in any host. The bacteria can be seedborne. However, water from rain, sprinkler irrigation, and heavy dews and fogs will splash bacteria from infected plants onto adjacent healthy foliage resulting in heavy infestation.
To manage the disease, always use tested/treated seeds, rotate crop with non-host to reduce inoculum level, switch from sprinkler to furrow irrigation to limit secondary spread, avoid excessive use of nitrogen fertilizer. If sprinkle irrigation has to be used, use light and more frequent irrigation, or irrigate in the morning or early afternoon so the plants dry off during the day. Copper spray/copper based fungicide provide limited control against the pathogens.
In next few weeks in the Clinic:
Because of the recent increase of Covid-19 related cases in Yuma, the Yuma Ag center is open only in limited capacity. Samples have to be dropped in the bench outside the main building. Please fill out the form provided when you drop samples. Our last day to take samples in the clinic for 2020 will be 18th of December. We will be using the remaining few days of the year to update the lab records, data, and prepare for 2021. Thank you for your love, support, and patience this year.
The Yuma Plant Health Clinic and Plant Pathology program wishes you safe and happy holidays!
There are many innovative automated weeding technologies coming out of Europe. One of these is the autonomous weeding robot being developed by Ecoroboti (Yverdon-les-Bains, Switzerland). The device is lightweight and solar powered. Early prototypes used a spider like, three-axis delta robot to precisely deliver herbicides to target weeds. Videos of the device were futuristic and intriguing to watch. The company has since moved on to a simpler weeding robot equipped with a fixed boom for spot spraying weeds (Fig. 1 & 2). The autonomous robot has some specifications that are plausible for use in Arizona vegetable production. Machine travel speed is 2.2 mph and work rate is 15 acres/day (10 hour day). Spot spray resolution is reasonable at 2.5 inch2 (1.5 x 1.5 inch). This is accomplished using a series of 52 nozzles mounted on an 80 inch wide boom (Fig. 2). The machine uses computer imaging and artificial intelligence for crop/weed differentiation to identify and target weeds.
This past summer, the system was tested in sugar beets in Germany. Results showed the system correctly sprayed about 80% of the weeds. For a first time, real-world, field scale test, this outcome is encouraging.
There are some limitations however. According to product literature, the machine’s artificial intelligence system will identify a crop plant as a weed approximately 5% of the time. Given the high value of vegetable crops, killing 5% of the crop as a trade-off for robotically controlling weeds is probably not viable. It should be noted that this level of crop/weed recognition performance is consistent with other artificial intelligence-based systems reported in the literature.
Don’t give up hope though. This type of technology is advancing rapidly, and may become feasible in the future. Computing speed and sensor capabilities are advancing all the time. A review of literature indicates that systems that combine 3-D morphology, optical color and accurate location data with deep learning techniques may be a viable approach to reliably differentiate crops from weeds. It will be interesting and exciting to watch this technology as it develops. That’s for sure.
As I have mentioned before, automated thinning and weeding technologies are advancing at a very rapid pace. If you know of a new technology that would be of interest and appropriate for this newsletter, please feel free to contact me.
The Yuma County Leaf Wetness Network remains in place for the 2018/19 vegetable season. Growers and PCAs may access information generated by the network by entering the following internet address: http://22.214.171.124:460
Upon entering the address above, you will be transferred to internet page that provides a series of tabs at the top of the page. Simply click on the tabs to access the information of interest.
Beet armyworm: Moth counts remain very low consistent with seasonal temperatures, but below average for this point in the season.
Cabbage looper: Slight increase in activity, but moth counts remain unusually low for late January.
Whitefly: Dult movement is at seasonal low consistent with temperatures and lack of melons or cotton.
Thrips: Activity remains lower than normal for this point late January. Increased movement noted in Roll/Tacna.
Aphids: Seasonal aphid counts peaked during the past 2 weeks, suggesting movement with recent winter storms and lack of desert vegetation. Counts were particularly high in North Yuma and Gila Valleys, and Bard. Above average for this time of year.
Leafminers: Adult activity remains light in most trap locations. Trap counts increasing slightly in the South Gila Valley.