May 5, 2021Summer Sanitation Is Important as Ever
To contact John Palumbo go to: jpalumbo@ag.Arizona.edu
In response to the Colorado River (CR) water shortage and the current reductions in CR allocations to Arizona via the Central Arizona Project (CAP), which is primarily impacting agricultural irrigation districts in central Arizona, there is an increasing level of scrutiny on agricultural uses of Arizona water. This of course is accentuated with the recognition that agriculture utilizes ~ 70% of the Arizona water supply.
In the irrigation districts along the mainstem of the CR, there is a common adage of “First in use, first in right.” This is a fundamental aspect of the “law of the river”, which is an amalgam of the various laws, agreements, and rulings on the governance of CR water. Therefore, it is important for us to consider and prepare the positive case that can be made for the good stewardship of water resources provided by Arizona agriculture.
One common area of criticism that is directed towards Arizona crop production systems, is the use of surface and flood irrigation systems. The alternative irrigation methods that are commonly advocated for use instead of flood irrigation are methods such as drip irrigation, micro-irrigation systems, sprinklers, etc. Each of these are good irrigation methods and advantageous under the appropriate conditions. However, a good case can be made for the very efficient use of flood irrigation systems, particularly with high-flow turnouts and dead level (or very nearly so) basins for irrigation. When properly managed, these types of flood irrigation systems can be very efficient.
When we know the area to be irrigated, the flow rate of water in the irrigation delivery ditch, and the amount of water needed; then we can determine the proper time or duration for an irrigation event. If we can get fast and uniform coverage of the field to be irrigated, apply the proper volume of water to replenish the plant-available water supply to the soil, then cut off the flow of irrigation water into the field; we can do a very good job of delivery for high water-use efficiency.
To facilitate the process of managing individual irrigations for optimum efficiency, the Irrigator’s Equation can be used to estimate the depth of water applied or time (duration) of an irrigation event.
Q x t = d x A
Where: Q = the flow rate, in cubic feet per second (cfs);
t = the set time or total time of irrigation (hours);
d = the depth of water applied (inches) and
A = the area irrigated (acres).
With an understanding of the dominant soil type in the field being irrigated and the level of soil-water depletion at the time of irrigation, we can estimate the amount or depth of water needed to replenish the soil profile of plant-available water to support the crop and prevent water stress.
In managing crop fields and irrigations, we recognize that soil textures vary in terms of water holding capacities and it is important to understand the dominant soil textures in the field, not only on the surface but also through the depths of the soil profile through the effective rooting depth of the crop, Tables 1 & 2.
Collectively, we can manage surface or flood irrigation systems efficiently. In the crop production arena, it is important to communicate these points effectively.
Table 1. Soil texture and water holding capacity.
2. Depths to which the roots of mature crops will deplete the available water supply when grown in a deep permeable, well-drained soil under average conditions.
Murphree, J. 2018. Arizona Agriculture is 23 Billion Dollars Beautiful, Arizona Farm Bureau.
PATHOGEN: Pantoea ananatis, Pantoea agglomerans, Pantoea alli and Pantoea stewartii subsp. indologenes
HOSTS: Onion (Allium cepa L.), garlic (Allium sativum L.), shallots (Allium cepa var. aggregatum L.), leeks (Allium ampeloprasum L.), chives (Allium schoenoprasum L.).
Symptoms and signs
Center rot of onion has not been a major problem in the desert southwest but when the environment is favorable, the disease can cause up to 90% loss. Foliar symptoms (symptoms on leaves) may start with water-soaked lesions spanning the length of the leaf blade, which gradually become blighted resulting in desiccation and collapse of the tissue. Experiments have shown that the bacteria can move from leaves to the bulbs, thus protecting foliage is important to manage the disease.
The bacteria can overseason to infect onions in a number of different ways. Like many bacterial pathogens, P. ananatis can be seed-borne with infested seed serving as a survival mechanism as well as a means of dissemination. It has been demonstrated that P. ananatis can be both naturally seed-borne and seed-transmitted in onion. The significance of the bacterium's ability to colonize seed is uncertain, as most onion seed production sites are located in arid climates but extremely important to understand to manage the disease.
Although P. ananatis can be seedborne, the proposed primary mode of transmission is by two insect vectors. Two species of thrips, tobacco thrips (Frankliniella fusca (Hinds)) and onion thrips (Thrips tabaci), have the ability to transiently acquire and transmit P. ananatis and P. agglomerans . The bacterium can persist in a non-circulative manner in the gut of thrips for 128 h, allowing the vector to infect plants over an extended period of time.
P. ananatis can survive epiphytically and endophytically on a wide range of hosts. These alternative hosts can serve as a source of inoculum in fields where susceptible crops are grown. In Georgia alone, 25 weed species, including carpetweed (Mollugo verticillata), common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia), crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis), common cocklebur (Xanthium pensylvanicum), curly dock (Rumex crispus), Florida pusley (Richardia scabra), sicklepod (Cassia obtusifolia), stinkweed (Thlaspi arvense), Texas panicum (Panicum texanum), vaseygrass (Paspalum urvillei), wild radish (Brassica spp.), yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus) and other multiple crop plants were found to harbor P. ananatis populations asymptomatically.
Pic Credit: Colton Tew
Center rot management in onion fields relies heavily on copper applications mixed with an ethylenebisdithiocarbamate fungicide (EBDC), such as mancozeb, which growers may apply weekly as a protectant. In addition, researchers found P. ananatis strains to be copper-tolerant indicating overuse and potential risk of insensitivity to this chemistry. Repeated applications of copper sprays during susceptible growth stages can be effective only to a limited extent and does not offer a robust solution to the problem. Perhaps the inefficacy of these sprays could be due to thrips preference to colonize certain parts of the onion plant, e.g. the basal meristems (neck region).
The implementation of successful weed management strategies are important in reducing P. ananatis inoculum in the field. By reducing weeds, growers can potentially reduce initial inoculum.
Keeping up to date with the latest developments in automated weeding machines is challenging. It’s a very fast-moving space with significant private and public investment. At the 2022 Southwest Ag Summit “Innovations in Weed Control Technologies” breakout session, university experts and cutting-edge innovators will provide updates on the latest domestic and international developments in automated weeding, autonomous ag robots, and non-chemical weed control (agenda below). The session will be held TOMMOROW Thursday, February 24th from 1:30-3:30 pm.
As I mentioned in the last newsletter, we’ll also be demoing our band-steam applicator for controlling soilborne diseases and weeds at the Southwest Ag Summit Field Day. We’ll also have our 2nd generation prototype band-steam applicator on display (Fig. 2). It is simpler in design and has a higher capacity steam generator as compared to our first prototype. This will increase travel speed and thereby work rate. The event is scheduled for TODAY, Wednesday, February 23rd from 10:30 am – 4:30 pm.
For more information about the Southwest Ag Summit, visit https://yumafreshveg.com/southwest-ag-summit/.
Hope to see you there!
This work is partially funded by the Arizona Iceberg Lettuce Research Council, Arizona Specialty Crop Block Grant Program and USDA-NIFA Crop Protection and Pest Management Program.
Fig. 1. “Innovations in Weed Control Technologies” breakout session agenda at the 2022 Southwest Ag Summit. Session will be held Thursday, February 24th at Arizona Western College, Yuma, AZ.
Fig. 2. Prototype band-steam applicator for controlling soilborne pathogens and weeds on display at the 2022 Southwest Ag Summit, Yuma, AZ. Applicator sled and trailer fabricated by Keithly-Williams Fabrication, Yuma, AZ. Steam generator provided courtesy of Simox, Contamine-sur-Arve, France.