May 5, 2021Summer Sanitation Is Important as Ever
To contact John Palumbo go to: jpalumbo@ag.Arizona.edu
The off-target movement of Dicamba and 2,4-D that was applied to resistant cotton and soybeans in the Midwest and south has been in the news for the last few years. It has exploded recently with the cancellation of these uses by a Federal court and the EPA. There have
not been serious problems with these herbicides here in Arizona. The focus of this article is to explain why not.
Much of the cotton, corn and soybeans grown in the U.S. was Glyphosate resistant for several years. The number of Glyphosate resistant weeds have increased every year and new concerns about the effect of Glyphosate on human health and environmental safety have arisen. In response to this problem, new varieties of cotton, corn and soybeans have been developed that are resistant to a couple of old but highly effective herbicides, Dicamba and 2,4-D. These herbicides have high vapor pressures and can volatilize after application. They change from a liquid or solid to a gas after application and can move, sometimes long distances, in the air. Any herbicide can drift onto sensitive crops during application and cause injury. This is different than volatilization. New formulations of 2,4-D and Dicamba have been developed, however, that have significantly lower volatility. Studies have shown that while the potential is lower that it still can occur. Volatilization of both Dicamba and 2,4-D have caused widespread problems to field crops, trees, parks, school yards, landscapes… to cause “Silent Spring “type conditions in the Midwest and south. Volatility problems occasionally occur but widespread and serious problems have not been encountered in Arizona.
The extreme conditions that exist during the summer in the low deserts of Arizona all contribute to herbicide volatility. High temperature, low humidity and the occurrence of temperature inversions have always made it difficult to use volatile herbicides here. Growers and Pest Control Advisers have learned to be cautious when using these products. They are rarely used after daytime temperatures go much above 90 degrees.
Acreage and Crop Diversity
Crops are grown in Arizona on a smaller scale and more intensively than they are in the Midwest and south. This is especially true in the southwestern counties. The acreage of cotton in 2019, for instance, was 173,000 acres in Arizona,4,350,000 in Texas,1,305,000 in Georgia,550,000 in Oklahoma and 497,000 in Alabama. This smaller scale allows Arizona growers to practice more careful management. Sprayers are cleaned more carefully or dedicated to spraying only volatile products. Fields and surrounding area are checked more frequently. In high acreage states, tens of thousands of acres can be treated at the same time with the same products. The amount of herbicide in the environment at those times is very high. In Arizona not only are crops grown on a smaller scale, but they are more diversified. It is not uncommon to see 3 ,4 or more different crops being grown at the same time on a 20 acre block. When fields are sprayed it is done very carefully.
Newer formulations and Varieties
New formulations of both Dicamba and 2,4-D have been developed that are much less volatile than the old formulations. Although some of these are promoted as non-volatile, they can still move. Some studies have shown that they are 30 to 50% more stable. It will be variable and dependent on many factors. It is important to choose those cotton varieties that have been developed to tolerate Dicamba or 2,4-D. According to Randy Norton, U of Az. Cotton Specialist, upwards of 60% of the cotton varieties being grown in Arizona this year are Dicamba resistant. Randy states that these varieties were selected for their yield and lint quality more so than their resistance to Dicamba.
Last year we had a lot of watermelon fields infected with Fusarium from Winterhaven to Yuma, Wellton, and Mohawk Valley. Rain, and overwatering of fields when plants set fruits might have contributed to the disease development.
Fusarium wilt of watermelon, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum, is one of the oldest described Fusarium wilt diseases and the most economically important disease of watermelon worldwide. It occurs on every continent except Antarctica and new races of the pathogen continue to impact production in many areas around the world. Long-term survival of the pathogen in the soil and the evolution of new races make management of Fusarium wilt difficult.
Symptoms of Fusarium can sometimes be confused with water deficiency, even though there is plenty of water in the field. In Yuma valley we have seen fusarium problem in some overwatered fields.
Initial symptoms often include a dull, gray green appearance of leaves that precedes a loss of turgor pressure and wilting. Wilting is followed by a yellowing of the leaves and finally necrosis. The wilting generally starts with the older leaves and progresses to the younger foliage. Under conditions of high inoculum density or a very susceptible host, the entire plant may wilt and die within a short time. Affected plants that do not die are often stunted and have considerably reduced yields. Under high inoculum pressure, seedlings may damp off as they emerge from the soil.
Initial infection of seedlings usually occurs from chlamydospores (resting structure) that have overwintered in the soil. Chlamydospores germinate and produce infection hyphae that penetrate the root cortex, often where the lateral roots emerge. Infection may be enhanced by wounds or damage to the roots. The fungus colonizes the root cortex and soon invades the xylem tissue, where it produces more mycelia and microconidia. Consequently, the fungus becomes systemic and often can be isolated from tissue well away from the roots. The vascular damage we see in the roots is the defense mechanism of the plant to impede the movement of pathogen.
Disease management include planting clean seeds/transplants, use of resistant cultivars, crop rotation, soil fumigation, soil solarization, grafting, biological control. An integrated approach utilizing two or more methods is required for successful disease management.
Vol. 12, Issue 4, Published 2/22/2021
Keeping up to date with the latest developments in automated weeding machines is challenging. It’s a very fast-moving space with significant private and public investment. At the “Advances in Weed Control Technologies” breakout session at the 2021 Southwest Ag Summit, university experts and cutting-edge innovators will provide updates on the latest developments in automated weeding, autonomous ag robots and non-chemical weed control. The first presenter will be Tony Koselka, COO and Vice President of Engineering, Vision Robotics Corp. Tony will be giving a history on the evolution of automated thinning/weeding technologies and real-world examples of how vision systems and artificial intelligence (AI) is being used with automated weeding machines today. Following Tony will be Paul Nagel, Chief Revenue Officer, Stout Industrial Technology, Inc. Paul will be discussing AI technologies available today, their capabilities, and where the technology is headed. Jaime Eltit, Head of Commercial Farming Operations, FarmWise, Inc. will be also be discussing AI technology and how machine learning is used for robotic in-row weed control. Additionally, he will be presenting information on the latest developments in autonomous weeding robots and their application in Arizona vegetable production systems. Finally, Dr. Steve Fennimore, Weed Scientist, UC Davis will be presenting information on a novel technique for using steam heat to control sclerotinia lettuce drop, Fusarium wilt of lettuce and in-row weeds in vegetable crops.
The session will be held TOMMOROW Thursday, February 25th from 1:30-3:30. If you are unable to attend the live session, recordings of the presentations will be available on March 2 and March 3. For those interested in CEU’s, the session offers 2 AZ/CA PCA and CCA credits. One last thing, you must be registered for the 2021 Southwest Ag Summit in order to attend the session. To register or for more information about the Southwest Ag Summit, visit https://yumafreshveg.com/southwest-ag-summit/. Hope to see you there for what promises to be an enlightening and informative session.
Area wide Insect Trapping Network VegIPM Update, Vol. 11, No. 22, October 28, 2020
Results of pheromone and sticky trap catches can be viewed here.
Corn earworm: Moth activity is about average for mid-October, particularly in Dome Valley and south Yuma Valley.
Beet armyworm: Moths remain active throughout the desert, especially active in Tacna and Dome Valley.
Cabbage looper: Cabbage looper activity remains unusually low for early October, likely a result of unusually hot weather. Larvae are yet to show up in many fields.
Whitefly: Adult movement has been about average for this time of year. Activity highest in Tacna near fall melons.
Thrips: To date, thrips activity has been seasonably low at all trap locations; activity increased significantly in Roll.
Aphids: Aphids beginning to show in most traps along the Colorado River (Bard, Gila, Yuma) which is normal for this time of year. Recent high winds may begin to disperse them throughout the area.
Leafminers: Adult activity below normal for September, but high numbers caught in Wellton in areas where melon harvest has commenced.