Jan 24, 2024Avoid Seed Corn Maggots in Spring Melons (2024)To contact John Palumbo go to: jpalumbo@ag.Arizona.edu
The soft-rot bacterium, Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora (syn.= Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum), enters through growth cracks or wounds caused by cold temperatures, insects, other disease organisms, or by mechanical means. Under warm, humid conditions, uninjured tissue may become infected through natural openings. Prolonged moisture from rain or irrigation and mild temperatures encourage disease development. Insects, tools, rain, clothing, or affected plant tissue can spread the bacteria. The bacteria survive in soil and plant debris.
Symptoms appear as small, water-soaked areas and enlarge rapidly. Tissue becomes soft and mushy, and within a few days the affected plant part may collapse. An offensive odor usually is present.
Due a lack of effective post-emergence herbicides, most vegetable crops are hand weeded following cultivation to remove in-row weeds. This operation is costly and finding labor to perform the task has become increasingly difficult. Precision micro-sprayers for delivering herbicides have been developed, but lack sufficient speed, accuracy and off-target spray control to be commercially viable. To address this, a high speed, centimeter scale resolution sprayer that can spot apply herbicides to weeds with minimal off-target spray while traveling speeds that are viable for commercial farming operations was developed. The objective of this research was to evaluate the performance of the device in terms of spray delivery accuracy, off-target spray quantity, weed control efficacy and crop safety. The spray assembly comprised 12 custom-built spray modules spaced 1 cm apart. The device was tested with lettuce in the laboratory at a travel speed on 2.0 mph while targeting three weed species at three stages of growth. Results showed that targeting accuracy of spray delivered was ± 2 mm and that the percentage of off-target spray was less than 3%. Weed control efficacy exceeded 95% and there was no observable crop injury. Improvements to the original design were identified and the enhanced sprayer was found to provide sub-centimeter precision. Practical applications of the technologies developed include precision spot spraying of weeds in lettuce, carrot, onion, spring mix and other vegetable crops. A remaining technical challenge for the realization of an automated precision weeding machine is the development of a camera imaging system capable of reliable crop/weed differentiation. Field testing of the precision spot sprayers is also needed.
Click the following link to watch presentation on Centimeter Scale Resolution Spot Sprayer.
The Yuma IPM Team has received requests for herbicide efficacy data generated locally for Onion and Broccoli.
We are currently doing some evaluations for direct seeded broccoli. Some of the treatments suggested by PCAs and growers are Devrinol DF XT at the rate of 1.0 and 2.0 lb, also Devrinol 2-XT at the rate of 1.0 and 2.0 qt. Additional preemergence herbicides included in the trials are Prefar 6 qt, Trifluralin 1.5 pt. Other treatments included are Goal Tender and Prowl with a directed application at 3-5 leaves. In a separate broccoli test we are looking at different incorporation timings of Devrinol due to some stunting issues reported. Our trial includes 12, 24, 36 hour sprinkler irrigation incorporation times for the liquid and dry formulations. Phytotoxicity will be evaluated and reported to you in this newsletter and University of Arizona Workshops.
For onions we established trials including treatments suggested such as Ethotron SC at 32 fl oz to a fine soil. Also included Prefar, Dual Magnum and Treflan preemergence. We will compare with Outlook plus Prowl and Goal Tender at 3 leaf stage.
Additionally, Corteva Agriscience is also focused in providing some options for weed control in both broccoli and onions. Some of their products been evaluated at the Agricultural Center are Rinskor (Hulk) and Enversa at post and preemergence.
We thank you for your treatment suggestions, which are incredibly helpful for designing the experiments we are conducting. We are looking forward to sharing the results with you.