Feb 7, 2024Keep an Eye Out for Corn Earworm in Spring Head LettuceTo contact John Palumbo go to: jpalumbo@ag.Arizona.edu
Bacterial leaf spot is caused by the bacterium, Pseudomonas syringae pv. Aptata. Hosts of the pathogen include Table beet, Sugar beet, Spinach, Swiss chard, Snap bean, Dry bean, Cantaloupe, Pumpkin, Squash, Lettuce, and Pepper.
Bacterial leaf spot is most commonly found affecting table beet at early stages of growth. This may be because younger plants are more susceptible. It may also be related to the prevalence of cool, wet conditions at the beginning of the cropping season. These conditions are most conducive to infection and disease development. The disease may affect green leaf area in developing seedlings and in severe cases can lead to plant death. Diseased leaves will lead to weakened seedlings which may affect transplant success. Bacterial leaf spot does not directly affect root quality.
Figure 1. Bacterial leaf spot caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. aptata of
table beet: (left) Small focus of the disease, and (right) 2-6 true leaf stage of
plants affected by the epidemic.
Bacterial leaf spot symptoms are irregular in shape and black to brown in color. The spots may occur across the leaf surface but have a tendency to occur on the leaf edges. Lesions are water-soaked not often accompanied by chlorosis (yellowing). Lesions may initially be small (up to ¼ inch in diameter) but if conditions are conducive may rapidly expand and coalesce but do not cross major veins. The leaf is usually puckered and deformed around the lesions, especially if they occur on the margins (Fig. 2). When the disease is severe, the affected the tissue may also tear giving the appearance of abiotic damage such as hail.
Figure 2. Symptoms of bacterial leaf spot on table beet (cv. Merlin). Note the
black color of the lesions and puckering and deformation of the leaves around
Bacterial leaf spot symptoms may be confused with other fungal foliar diseases (e.g. Cercospora and Phoma leaf spots; see complementary fact sheets for these diseases) and insect damage (e.g. thrips). Bacterial leaf spot lesions do not have black pin-head, fungal structures across the lesions as found in Cercospora leaf spot. Phoma leaf spot lesions also have small, black structures within the lesions but found in rings and usually accompanied by an ooze of spores.
Figure 3. Schematic diagram of the potential sources of Pseudomonas syringae pv. aptata inoculum which may contribute to Bacterial leaf spot epidemics in table beet.
P. syringae pv. aptata may be introduced to the table beet crop through several ways (Fig. 3). P. syringae pv. aptata is seedborne and infested seed is a common means of pathogen introduction into table beet fields. The pathogen can also be present in the infested crop residues from the previous season as well as the alternative hosts. Alternative crop hosts include typical Chenopods (e.g. spinach, sugar beet, and Swiss chard) but also other non-related species including beans, cucurbits, and lettuce. Cool temperatures between 45-60°F and wet conditions typical of those that occur in early spring in upstate New York are conducive for pathogen infection and disease development. These conditions are similar to those that predispose table beet also to Phoma leaf spot. The pathogen can spread within the field through infested seed and irrigation water.
One of the most critical factors to achieve management of bacterial leaf spot is the use of certified seeds (Fig. 4). Other factors that will also contribute to reducing the initial inoculum and hence risk of disease include: (i) tillage to bury plant residues to promote breakdown, (ii) rotation between host crop species of at least three years; and (iii) drip or furrow irrigation to avoid dispersal of the pathogen through water splash. Currently, little is known of differences in cultivar susceptibility to bacterial leaf spot. Anectodal reports have described severe epidemics in cvs. Merlin, Boro, and Pablo.
Figure 4. Complementary practices towards the management of Bacterial leaf spot of table beet.
In-season control. If bacterial leaf spot is severe, applications of copper-based products should be considered to prevent disease spread. There are a range of conventional and OMRI-listed copper-based products available, including: Cueva (copper octanoate; FRAC M1), Badge X2 (copper oxychloride + copper hydroxide; FRAC M1), and Kocide 3000-O (copper hydroxide; FRAC M1). Remember to check the label for rates, re-entry intervals, and pre-harvest intervals applicable to your state and crop. Avoid applying copper-based products on transplants before hardening off, and in high temperatures due to the risk of phytotoxicity.
Due a lack of effective post-emergence herbicides, most vegetable crops are hand weeded following cultivation to remove in-row weeds. This operation is costly and finding labor to perform the task has become increasingly difficult. Precision micro-sprayers for delivering herbicides have been developed, but lack sufficient speed, accuracy and off-target spray control to be commercially viable. To address this, a high speed, centimeter scale resolution sprayer that can spot apply herbicides to weeds with minimal off-target spray while traveling speeds that are viable for commercial farming operations was developed. The objective of this research was to evaluate the performance of the device in terms of spray delivery accuracy, off-target spray quantity, weed control efficacy and crop safety. The spray assembly comprised 12 custom-built spray modules spaced 1 cm apart. The device was tested with lettuce in the laboratory at a travel speed on 2.0 mph while targeting three weed species at three stages of growth. Results showed that targeting accuracy of spray delivered was ± 2 mm and that the percentage of off-target spray was less than 3%. Weed control efficacy exceeded 95% and there was no observable crop injury. Improvements to the original design were identified and the enhanced sprayer was found to provide sub-centimeter precision. Practical applications of the technologies developed include precision spot spraying of weeds in lettuce, carrot, onion, spring mix and other vegetable crops. A remaining technical challenge for the realization of an automated precision weeding machine is the development of a camera imaging system capable of reliable crop/weed differentiation. Field testing of the precision spot sprayers is also needed.
Click the following link to watch presentation on Centimeter Scale Resolution Spot Sprayer.
The Yuma IPM Team has received requests for herbicide efficacy data generated locally for Onion and Broccoli.
We are currently doing some evaluations for direct seeded broccoli. Some of the treatments suggested by PCAs and growers are Devrinol DF XT at the rate of 1.0 and 2.0 lb, also Devrinol 2-XT at the rate of 1.0 and 2.0 qt. Additional preemergence herbicides included in the trials are Prefar 6 qt, Trifluralin 1.5 pt. Other treatments included are Goal Tender and Prowl with a directed application at 3-5 leaves. In a separate broccoli test we are looking at different incorporation timings of Devrinol due to some stunting issues reported. Our trial includes 12, 24, 36 hour sprinkler irrigation incorporation times for the liquid and dry formulations. Phytotoxicity will be evaluated and reported to you in this newsletter and University of Arizona Workshops.
For onions we established trials including treatments suggested such as Ethotron SC at 32 fl oz to a fine soil. Also included Prefar, Dual Magnum and Treflan preemergence. We will compare with Outlook plus Prowl and Goal Tender at 3 leaf stage.
Additionally, Corteva Agriscience is also focused in providing some options for weed control in both broccoli and onions. Some of their products been evaluated at the Agricultural Center are Rinskor (Hulk) and Enversa at post and preemergence.
We thank you for your treatment suggestions, which are incredibly helpful for designing the experiments we are conducting. We are looking forward to sharing the results with you.
CEW moth captures have steadily decreased over the past 2 weeks, and areawide about average for late-October.
Trap counts reached their highest levels so far this season, particularly in Tacna, Wellton and Yuma Valley, and about average for late October.
Cabbage looper numbers decreased areawide, and are still below average for this time of the year.
Sporadic DBM activity in low numbers throughout the area, trending well below average for late October.
Adult movement increased in the past 2 weeks and above average for late October.
Thrips adult activity peaked in the last two weeks, and trending below average in October.
Winged adults continue to be captured for the season, consistent with heavy winds from W-NW. Aphid captures thus far have been well below average.
Adult activity decreased in most areas, and trending about average for late October.