Mar 9, 2022Aphids Still Going Strong Late in the Season
To contact John Palumbo go to: jpalumbo@ag.Arizona.edu
|Dendranthema x grandiflorum||Eustoma grandiflorum|
|Exacum affine||Fatsia japonica|
|Gladiolus||Imaptiens (New Guinea, Balasam)|
|Senecio cruentus||Sinningia speciose|
INSV is the first virus to be recorded from a fern (the glasshouse ornamental Asplenium nidus-avis).
Vol. 13, Issue 1, Published 1/12/2022
Last fall, we established two trials investigating the used of band-steam to control Fusarium wilt of lettuce. We utilized the prototype band-steam applicator (Fig 1) described in previous UA Veg IPM articles (Vol. 11 (15) to inject steam into the soil prior to planting. The concept behind band-steam is to disinfest narrow bands of soil using high temperature steam. In the trials, the steam applicator was configured to treat a 4” wide by 4” deep band of soil centered on the seedline.
Experiment results were mixed. At the field site where Fusarium inoculum loads were high, band-steam provided no benefit with virtually all lettuce plants succumbing to the disease (Fig 2a). However, at the trial site where Fusarium inoculum levels were moderate, disease incidence was reduced by more than 40%, and plants appeared to be healthier and more vigorous (Fig. 2b). We’ll be harvesting these plots soon so stay tuned to learn whether these differences translate into significant yield increases.
If you are interested in trying band-steam on your farm, please let me know. We are in the process of constructing a second-generation band-steam applicator that has a higher capacity steam generator and simpler design than our first prototype and are seeking collaborators.
This work is partially funded by the Arizona Specialty Crop Block Grant Program
A special thank you is extended to Larry Ott and Gila Valley Farms for allowing us to conduct this research on their farm.
Fig. 1. Band-steam applicator principally comprising a 35 BHP steam generator mounted on a bed-shaper applicator sled.
Fig. 2. Lettuce seedlings at field sites with (a) very high and (b) moderate levels of Fusarium wilt of lettuce inoculum. Band-steam (left) and untreated (right) plots are shown.
Malva (malva parviflora) is one of the oldest and most pervasive weeds that that we deal with here. It is also known as little mallow or cheeseweed and is in the same family as cotton, okra and hibiscus. It is often classified as a winter annual but survives all year in this region. It has a deep taproot and can grow in compacted clay or sand and in freezing conditions and high temperatures It provides a refuge for insects and diseases that can damage several crops.
Malva is easy to identify both as a seedling and mature plant. The seedlings are distinctively heart shaped and the mature plant is broad and palm shaped. It is very vegetative and can grow to 6 ft.
The deep tap root of this weed makes it difficult to cut out after it is established. Its response to herbicides id somewhat unusual. It is very sensitive to contact herbicides that do not move into the plant. These include Goal, Sharpen Gramoxone , Rely,Aim and others. However, it is not sensitive to systemic herbicides like 2,4-D and Glyphosate. It reproduces from seed and can be controlled preemergence with many of the same preemergence herbicides used in cotton like Prowl or Treflan. The seed pods are wheel shaped which is where the name cheeseweed comes from. Each seed pod contains 10 to 12 seeds
Area wide Insect Trapping Network VegIPM Update, Vol. 11, No. 22, October 28, 2020
Results of pheromone and sticky trap catches can be viewed here.
Corn earworm: Moth activity is about average for mid-October, particularly in Dome Valley and south Yuma Valley.
Beet armyworm: Moths remain active throughout the desert, especially active in Tacna and Dome Valley.
Cabbage looper: Cabbage looper activity remains unusually low for early October, likely a result of unusually hot weather. Larvae are yet to show up in many fields.
Whitefly: Adult movement has been about average for this time of year. Activity highest in Tacna near fall melons.
Thrips: To date, thrips activity has been seasonably low at all trap locations; activity increased significantly in Roll.
Aphids: Aphids beginning to show in most traps along the Colorado River (Bard, Gila, Yuma) which is normal for this time of year. Recent high winds may begin to disperse them throughout the area.
Leafminers: Adult activity below normal for September, but high numbers caught in Wellton in areas where melon harvest has commenced.