May 5, 2021Summer Sanitation Is Important as Ever
To contact John Palumbo go to: jpalumbo@ag.Arizona.edu
Late blight of celery is caused by fungi Septoria spp. The disease is named late blight as it is mostly seen at the later in the growing season, but don’t be surprised if you see the symptoms in early season when the weather is conducive. Leaf spots are dark, circular to irregular in shape, and 3-10 mm in diameter. Dark colored fruiting bodies (pycnidia) of the fungus which form in the center of leaf spots give the spots a grainy appearance. In case of severe infection, large number of spots are formed and can significantly reduce yield. Sometimes, angular spots are seen as the symptoms are restricted by leaf venation. The stalk or petiole of the plants can also be infected and large number of pycnidia observed in the stalk. Pycnidia is basically huge amounts of asexual spores in dark fruiting bodies and are formed on the older lesions and their development is encouraged by moist weather.
The pathogen is seed borne but will survive in soil in decomposing celery tissue for months. Cool and wet weathers favor the disease. Temperatures below 75 F are conducive to disease formation. High humidity allows abundant production of spores and epidemics are initiated by splashing spores or by movement of spores by contact. Rain, heavy dew or fog, and sprinkler irrigation when temperatures are above 70°F encourage disease development; splashing water disperses spores and aids in spore germination and infection
Acquiring clean seeds is the best management practice for the disease. Hot water treatments are effective but might interfere the germination percentage. Clean cultivation, not planting new crop next to the infected crop field, crop rotation, and fungicides can be used to manage the disease. Avoid sprinkle irrigation after symptoms are observed. Copper sprays can be used in organic farming.
Speaking of Celery disease
This year we will be conducting fungicide trials on foliar disease of celery. If your product is registered for organic celery production, the cost is covered by Specialty Crop Block Grant. For chemicals to be used against foliar disease (late blight or powdery mildew depending on disease incidence) and additional information please contact Bindu Poudel-ward (firstname.lastname@example.org).
Vol. 13, Issue 1, Published 1/12/2022
Last fall, we established two trials investigating the used of band-steam to control Fusarium wilt of lettuce. We utilized the prototype band-steam applicator (Fig 1) described in previous UA Veg IPM articles (Vol. 11 (15) to inject steam into the soil prior to planting. The concept behind band-steam is to disinfest narrow bands of soil using high temperature steam. In the trials, the steam applicator was configured to treat a 4” wide by 4” deep band of soil centered on the seedline.
Experiment results were mixed. At the field site where Fusarium inoculum loads were high, band-steam provided no benefit with virtually all lettuce plants succumbing to the disease (Fig 2a). However, at the trial site where Fusarium inoculum levels were moderate, disease incidence was reduced by more than 40%, and plants appeared to be healthier and more vigorous (Fig. 2b). We’ll be harvesting these plots soon so stay tuned to learn whether these differences translate into significant yield increases.
If you are interested in trying band-steam on your farm, please let me know. We are in the process of constructing a second-generation band-steam applicator that has a higher capacity steam generator and simpler design than our first prototype and are seeking collaborators.
This work is partially funded by the Arizona Specialty Crop Block Grant Program
A special thank you is extended to Larry Ott and Gila Valley Farms for allowing us to conduct this research on their farm.
Fig. 1. Band-steam applicator principally comprising a 35 BHP steam generator mounted on a bed-shaper applicator sled.
Fig. 2. Lettuce seedlings at field sites with (a) very high and (b) moderate levels of Fusarium wilt of lettuce inoculum. Band-steam (left) and untreated (right) plots are shown.
Malva (malva parviflora) is one of the oldest and most pervasive weeds that that we deal with here. It is also known as little mallow or cheeseweed and is in the same family as cotton, okra and hibiscus. It is often classified as a winter annual but survives all year in this region. It has a deep taproot and can grow in compacted clay or sand and in freezing conditions and high temperatures It provides a refuge for insects and diseases that can damage several crops.
Malva is easy to identify both as a seedling and mature plant. The seedlings are distinctively heart shaped and the mature plant is broad and palm shaped. It is very vegetative and can grow to 6 ft.
The deep tap root of this weed makes it difficult to cut out after it is established. Its response to herbicides id somewhat unusual. It is very sensitive to contact herbicides that do not move into the plant. These include Goal, Sharpen Gramoxone , Rely,Aim and others. However, it is not sensitive to systemic herbicides like 2,4-D and Glyphosate. It reproduces from seed and can be controlled preemergence with many of the same preemergence herbicides used in cotton like Prowl or Treflan. The seed pods are wheel shaped which is where the name cheeseweed comes from. Each seed pod contains 10 to 12 seeds